Gonorrhoea is transmitted:
- by exchange of biological fluids (semen, pre-ejaculatory fluid, vaginal secretions) in contact with genital, oral or anal mucous membranes* (inner part of the vulva, vagina, glans, anus, throat). Transmission of gonorrhoea is even more frequent during contact (direct AND indirect) between the mucous membranes (sexual caresses, exchange of sex toys, etc.)
- during childbirth (from the mother to the child).
Mucous membranes: very thin and highly vascularised walls present in the orifices (vagina, anus, nose, throat, ear, eye) and around the glans.
Generally, gonorrhoea is asymptomatic. If this is not the case symptoms appear 2 to 5 days after infection :
- Unusual vaginal discharge, pain in the lower abdomen and irritation of the vulva
- Unusual discharge from the penis and irritation of the penis
- Pain with the sensation of urinating razor blades and possible bleeding
- Throat and anal pain (often with discharge)
Consequences if undetected and untreated
If the infection is not treated in time, complications can arise:
- A genital infection and urinary disorder
- A infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes
- A prostate infection
- The infertility
Screening for gonorrhoea is carried out:
- via a smear test (vaginal, oral, anal)
- via a 'first pass' urine test
Your partners should also be screened and treated!
Gonorrhoea is treated with antibiotics antibiotics.
There is nothing to stop gonorrhoea from infecting you again once you have been treated and cured! So remember to get your partner treated and to protect yourself during sex.
To protect yourself from gonorrhoea, you should use a condom (external or internal), a latex square or a nitril glove.
Condoms reduce the risk of exposure but do not offer complete protection as gonorrhoea can be transmitted through sexual touching and oral sex.
Gonorrhoea often has no symptoms, so protect yourself and your partner after taking a risk!
Note that only 2 gonorrhea/chlamydia screenings are reimbursed per year." where most relevant.